EJCAP Online 22(4), December 2012, English

11 Looking at the urinary tract - kopie

11 Looking at the urinary tract - kopie

Imaging the bladder

Kimberly Palgrave (BCF Technology) has developed a series of online instructional videos demonstrating how to perform a basic abdominal ultrasound examination in small animal patients. Check out this video on ultrasound examination of the bladder.

This video was kindly provided by BCF technology

C.

Double contrast cystography in a male dog. There are multiple, irregularly shaped filling defects in the central contrast puddle due to a small collection of calculi.

10/10

What's your diagnosis? Click on your answer of choice.

A - Contrast cystography showing a bladder tumour

B - Plain radiograph of dog with uroliths

C - Double contrast cystography in a dog with uroliths

A.

Positive contrast vaginourethrography in a bitch. There is smooth contrast filling of the vagina, with contrast extending into the uterine horns. Ventral to the vagina, contrast is seen within the urethra. The margins of the urethral contrast column are very ragged, which may be seen with severe inflammation or with neoplasia.

9/10

What's your diagnosis? Click on your answer of choice.

A - Vaginourethrography with some contrast in the urethra

B - Contrast cystography with ectopic ureters

C - Vaginourethrography with rupture of the ventral vaginal wall

C.

Positive contrast cystography in a cat which had been involved in a road traffic accident. Streaks of positive contrast are seen throughout the abdomen, and extending in to the soft tissues ventral to the abdominal wall, indicating rupture of the bladder and the abdominal wall.

8/10

What's your diagnosis? Click on your answer of choice.

A - Rupture of the bladder and ureters

B - Ectopic ureters and ruptured bladder

C - Rupture of the bladder and abdominal wall

B.

Excretory urogram in a young adult bitch. The left kidney is a normal size and shape, and contrast medium outlines a normal renal pelvis. The right kidney is indistinct, but the renal pelvis and ureter show moderately severe dilation. This bitch had an ectopic right ureter. At surgery, the right kidney was small and irregular.

7/10

What's your diagnosis? Click on your answer of choice.

A - Normal right kidney, dilated left ureter

B - Normal left kidney, dilated right ureter

C - Enlarged left right kidney, dilated right ureter

C.

A lateral radiograph of the caudal abdomen of a dog. Streaks of gas (black) are seen running within the bladder wall, and there is a mixture of gas and fluid within the bladder lumen. This diabetic dog had developed emphysematous cystitis.

6/10

What's your diagnosis? Click on your answer of choice.

A - Plain radiograph of dog with bladder stones

B - Double contrast radiograph of dog with bladder tumour

C - Plain radiograph of dog with emphysematous cystitis

A.

A zoomed in view of the kidneys of a dog which had undergone double contrast cystography. Streaks of gas outline the pelves and diverticula of the kidneys.

5/10

What's your diagnosis?

Click on your answer of choice.

A - Dog kidney (double contrast cytography)

B - Dog kidneys (contrast angiogram)

C - Dog kidney (plain radiograph)

B.

A lateral abdominal radiograph of an adult cat which had been straining to urinate. In this case the bladder is small, but contains a small collection of radio opaque calculi.

4/10

What's your diagnosis? Click on your answer of choice.

A - Cat with urinary retention

B - Cat with uroliths

C - Cat with ectopic kidney

A.

A lateral radiograph of the caudal abdomen of an adult cat after a road traffic accident. A rupture of the abdominal wall has resulted in the small intestine and bladder lying in the soft tissues ventral to the abdominal wall.

3/10

What's your diagnosis? Click on your answer of choice.

A - Cat with rupture of the abdominal wall

B - Cat with inguinal hernia

C - Dog with umbilical hernia

B.

A lateral abdominal radiograph of an adult cat which was not urinating. Although bladder size is very variable, the bladder in this cat is abnormally distended. Note the disruption of the caudal part of the sacrum; sacro-coccygeal injuries can be associated with neurological deficits affecting urination.

2/10

What's your diagnosis? Click on your answer of choice.

A - Cat with abdominal effusion

B - Cat with urinary retention due to spinal nerve lesions

C - Cat with urinary obstruction due to uroliths

C.

A lateral abdominal radiograph of an adult cat with ample intra-abdominal fat. The superimposed right and left kidneys are clearly outlined in the mid dorsal abdomen.

1/10

What's your diagnosis? Click on your answer of choice.

A - Dog with abdominal effusion

B - Cat with abdominal effusion

C - Cat with abdominal fat

Author

Frances Barr

BSAVA, Woodrow House

Telford Way

Waterwells Business Park

Quedgeley

Gloucester GL2 2AB

United Kingdom

E-mail: f.barr@bsava.com

Frances Barr graduated from Cambridge in 1979, and worked for four years in mixed practice in Kent. She obtained her RCVS Certificate in Veterinary Radiology while working in practice. Frances then moved to the University of Bristol, first as a veterinary surgeon at Bristol Zoo, then as lead clinician in the University’s first opinion small animal practice, before concentrating on diagnostic imaging. She has spent most of her professional career as a clinician and teacher in the field of diagnostic imaging, working with both first opinion and referred patients. She was a foundation diplomate of the European College of Veterinary Diagnostic Imaging, and also holds the RCVS Diploma in Veterinary Radiology. In 2010, Frances moved to take up the position of Academic Director with BSAVA, with the remit of developing the BSAVA postgraduate certificate programmes in small animal medicine and in small animal surgery.

Source: BSAVA Manual of Canine and Feline Ultrasonography ©BSAVA.

The left kidney of an adult Jack Russell Terrier is shown in this clip. The kidney is a smooth oval shape. The echogenic focus in the central part of the kidney represents fat within the renal pelvis. There is good distinction between the renal cortex and medulla (Courtesy of F. Barr).

by Frances Barr

Click to read more about this author

Look at these radiographs and click on the answer to see if you’ve got it right!

What’s your diagnosis?

Imaging the bladder

Check out this video on ultrasound examination of the bladder, with Kimberly Palgrave (BCF Technology).

Click on the image to watch the video by BCF Technology.

The video was kindly provided by

BCF Technology

Source: BSAVA Manual of Canine and Feline Ultrasonography ©BSAVA.

Normal kidney in a dog

The left kidney of an adult Jack Russell Terrier is shown in this clip. The kidney is a smooth oval shape. The echogenic focus in the central part of the kidney represents fat within the renal pelvis. There is good distinction between the renal cortex and medulla (Courtesy of F. Barr).

Back to content page

Volume 22(4), December 2012 SPECIAL ISSUE

Looking at the urinary tract

Commissioned paper

Imaging of the Urinary Tract

Disorders of the urinary tract are commonly seen in small animal practice. While taking a full clinical history and performing a thorough physical examination can allow the veterinary surgeon to narrow down the possible differential diagnoses, diagnostic imaging and laboratory testing often provide valuable supplementary information. With ever sophisticated imaging modalities available, it’s important to appreciate the roles which conventional radiography and simple ultrasound can, and should, play in the evaluation and treatment of patients with urinary tract disease.