EJCAP Online 22(4), December 2012, English

12 New diagnostic tools for old diseases

12 New diagnostic tools for old diseases

3D CT reconstruction, ventral view, of a canine pelvis. Multiple fractures and fragments are visible (arrowheads). The orientation and delineation of the fractures and fragments is very valuable for treatment planning.

Sagittal MR image (T2- weighted) at the lumbosacral region of a dog with lumbosacral stenosis. Dorsal and ventral (arrowhead) compression of the cauda equina is seen at the level of L7-S1. At this level the disc is dehydrated and the disc is bulging into the vertebral canal.

A: Sagittal MR image (T2 weighted) of a dog. A hyper-intense area is visible at the spinal cord at the level of the first 2 cervical vertebrae.

B: Transverse image (T1 post-contrast) showing prominent contrast enhancement of a cervical meningioma.

Dog with a herniated disc at the level of the first and second lumbar vertebrae.

(A: transverse, B and C: a sagittal and dorsal CT reconstructed image). There is severe extradural compression by an extruded mineralized disc. The reconstructed images allow accurate lesion localization.

Dorsal MR image (T2- weighted) of the retrobulbar region in a dog. At the left retrobulbar region a hyper-intense structure is seen (arrowheads). Part of the frontal sinus is missing and there is invasive growth into the sinus (*). B: Dorsal MR image (T1- weighted, post-contrast). The contrast enhancement at the level of the mass is suggestive for a tumour.

Transverse MR image (T2 weighted) of a dog with Chiari malformation. The cerebellar tissue is visible through the foramen magnum (arrowhead) and associated syringomyelia is present (asterisk).

Transverse CT image of the caudal nasal cavity of a dog. Multiple fractures (arrowheads) are seen at the level of the frontal sinus. Within the frontal sinuses soft tissue opacities are present (most likely due to haemorrhages).

Transverse MR image (T2- weighted) of the brain of a toy breed dog with granulomatous meningoencephalomyelitis (GMEM). Multiple hyper-intense areas (arrowheads) are visible within the brain parenchyma.

Transverse CT image at the level of the caudal parts of the nasal cavities of a dog showing a completely obliterated left nasal cavity. Several areas show bony destruction (arrowheads) and the ethmoid turbinates are destroyed. Extension of the mass is present at the level of the nasopharyngeal meatus (asterisk). These signs are indicative for neoplasia of the left nasal cavity.

A: Transverse CT image (A) and sagittal reconstructed image (B) of the head of a dog after intravenous contrast administration (post-contrast). A: Ventral to the base of the skull a soft tissue opacity (arrowheads) is seen. The border of the mass shows moderate contrast enhancement which contains contrast fluid. B: The reconstructed sagittal image shows a prominent nasopharyngeal soft tissue mass (arrowhead). Histology diagnosed a fibrosarcoma.

3D CT reconstruction of the skull of a cat. A unilateral luxation of the left temporomandibular joint is present (arrowhead).

first Author

Ingrid Gielen

Department of Medical Imaging of

Domestic Animals and Small Animal Orthopaedics, CT-MR Unit

Ghent University

Belgium

E-mail ingrid.gielen@UGent.be

Ingrid Gielen graduated from Ghent University in Belgium in July 1995, and joined the staff as assistant at the Department of Medical Imaging, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Belgium. In 2000, Ingrid obtained a Masters Degree in Laboratory Animal Science.

She gained the award for the best oral presentation at the International Veterinary Radiology Association meeting in Japan in 2000. Ingrid completed her PhD thesis with the title “Computed Tomography in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Canine Tarsocrural Osteochondrosis” in 2003.

Currently, she is Division Head CT and MRI in Veterinary Diagnostic Imaging, and in charge of CT and MRI examinations in small and large animals. Ingrid is Past-President of the European Association of Veterinary Diagnostic Imaging. She was invited speaker at 75 international conferences on medical imaging and orthopaedics and is author of 102 peer reviewed publications in national and international journals on medical imaging and orthopaedics.

She has a particular interest in imaging techniques of joint diseases and neurologic diseases.

This table provide indications for CT and MR imaging for the spinal cord.

Clicking on any indication in orange will provide a visual example.

Other examples can be seen in the pdf.

This table provide indications for CT and MR imaging for the brain.

Clicking on any indication in orange will provide a visual example.

Other examples can be seen in the pdf.

© Ingrid Gielen, FVM, UGent

OCD of the elbow

Transverse CT study from distal to proximal of an elbow joint in a young dog. There is a radiolucent area present at the medial humeral condyle representing osteochondritis dissecans (OCD). A detached fragment at the medial coronoid process can be detected. Some arthrosis is present.

Disc extrusion

CT study of a cervical spine of a dog, from the first cervical vertebra to the second thoracic vertebra. There is a large amount of mineralised disc material present in the spinal canal at the level of C4-C5 (extrusion) causing extradural compression on the spinal cord. There is ventro-lateral compression on the right side. There is disc bulging at C6-C7 and C7-T1.

Lung metastases

CT study of the cranial abdomen and thorax, from caudal to cranial, of a dog with metastasis in the lung lobes (visible between 00:11 and 00:58 seconds). Multiple poorly marginated nodules are seen.

CT/MR Images of the brain and spine

These tables provide indications for CT and MR imaging for the brain (top table) and spinal cord (bottom table).

Clicking on any indication in orange will provide a visual example. Other examples can be seen in the pdf.

by Ingrid Gielen, Annemie Van Caelenberg and Henri van Bree

Click to read more about this author

OCD of the elbow

Disc extrusion

Lung metastases

Dynamic CT

These videos provide examples of how CT studies can be used as diagnostic tools.

© Ingrid Gielen, FVM, UGent

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Volume 22(4), December 2012 SPECIAL ISSUE

New diagnostic tools for old diseases

Commissioned paper

Clinical applications of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in small animals

Computed Tomography (CT or CAT scan) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MR or MRI) are modern imaging procedures that have been established in human medicine for many years. Today, both procedures are often available in veterinary medicine and have proven their value in the detection of neurologic, orthopaedic, oncologic, and other diseases.